I am not sure any of us see the answers. we have no evidence that distance learning, on-line courses, computer assisted and all other methods eject living person from process actually produce proficient students. but then can’t agree on what proficiency is; today i had lunch with my department shuddered made notes through as heard comments like, “i told kid he didn’t need to know it meant, it’s a verb exercise”. great. only newer approaches, ci krashenian tprs, communicative teaching, etc. are asked iron-clad they work; traditional memorize-the-endings-and-practice-them approaches given free ride, silly is ever them. mike many others this listserv over years testified utter uselessness grammar instruction. at swcolt conference could find teacher who would defend own students spanish instruction and, despite high motivation good student skills, never learn say anything in beyond “puedo ir al bano” b c taught was conjugations. yet still defenders method. i’ll bet reach teach using those – relay races, conjugation chants, so i’m faulting method approach per se, noting stultifying effect expecting people memorize abstract rules apply them producing sentences tl. years, i’ve been labeled list both shill for or whatever insincere. least get their descriptions right listen mill learned nothing. instead, lectures about being motivated. one school calls her lazy these highly motivated, very hard-working prep mike’s point look why easy districts replace human teachers computers pointed common experience: complete failure achieve level grammar-driven classes. gets his motivation. like submit true exam, fill-in-the-blank tests, just how much can function don’t universal exam languages? test publishers will be rejected if grammar. seen write do give questions contextualized manner sentence! thus show even means. till cows come home long emerge proficient.